Silicon crystal structure

Sil’tronix ST, a long experience dedicated to the quality

For more than 40 years, Sil'tronix Silicon Technologies aims to manufacture monocrystalline silicon wafers. From the beginning, the company manages the whole process by the achievement of the entirely production within its own factory based in France.

The fabrication is totally made internally from the pulling process to get the ingot up to the final step which is the cleaning process. The whole process managed internally is the insurance to get a reliable and qualitative consistency.

This long experience allows the company to manage perfectly the parameters of each monocrystalline ingot manufactured within our own furnaces.

Silicon crystal Orientation

The monocrystalline silicon crystal is characterized by an orderly array of atoms: It is the same arrangement in any area of the crystal.

Silicon cubic crystal structure

The diamond cubic crystal structure

Silicon belongs to the cubic crystal system and has a diamond structure. This is characterized by having each atom symmetrically surrounded by four equally spaced neighbours in a tetrahedral arrangement.

Crystallographic planes and directions

Silicon crystal planes

Sil’tronix Silicon Technologies uses an X-ray diffraction system to identify the planes in the silicon crystal structure. It is the best way to check the precise orientation of the crystal for machining and reach our standard accuracy of 0.5 degrees. 


A flat for each planes and dopant 

In order to identify the planes, we add flats on silicon wafers as required by the Semi standard. This process shows two things:

  • The doping type of the wafer (n- or p- type)
  • The orientation of the wafer: {100} or {111}

Silicon wafers orientations

Orientation accuracy

Sil'tronix ST provides better accuracy on request. Due to special abbilities acquired with our long experience, we achieve oriententation with really high precision, up to 0.01°. In order to get this very precise accuracy, we use a special designed bond jig. By this way, the orientated material is transferred to the diamond machining stage according to the same precision.

Sil'tronix ST orientation accuracy

Silicon wafer orientation

Due to the fundamental characteristics of the monocrystalline boule, it is possible to manage the slicing in order to get a specific orientation.

Although Sil’tronix Silicon Technologies provides silicon ingot with the major ingot axis grown in (100) and (111) orientation,  supplying silicon wafers with specific orientations is becoming relevant regarding the large topics we are involved:

Orientation available

Off orientation / Miscut

Finally, regarding the whole capabilities we acquired since 40 years, we provide also off orientations in order to answer to a large range of topics. This miscut is available up to 40° regarding a specific orientation.

Off orientation - Miscut

I would like a quote >>


Over the past 20 years, scientists have been developing metamaterials, or materials that don't occur naturally and whose mechanical properties result from their designed structure rather than their chemical composition. They allow researchers to create materials with specific properties and shapes. Metamaterials are still not widely used in everyday objects, but that could soon change.

Read more

A group of researchers led by Stanislav Evlashin, a senior research scientist at the Skoltech Center for Design, Manufacturing and Materials (CDMM), demonstrated a simple and 100% efficient method of converting silicon wafers into nanoparticles in an aqueous solution. This discovery can help find an environmentally friendly way of silicon recycling without using toxic chemicals.

Read more

View all news